Proximate analysis of selected agricultural waste for their nutritional potential

Muniratu Maliki (1) , Esther Uwadia Ikhuoria (2) , Patience Aluyor (3)
(1) Department of Industrial Chemistry Edo State University Uzairue (EDSU), Edo State , Nigeria
(2) Department of Chemistry University of Benin, Benin City, , Nigeria
(3) Department of Vocational and Technical Education Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State , Nigeria


Background: Global food insecurity is worsening as a result of the speedily expanding human population and this is taking a huge toll on the availability of feed for livestock. Alternative food sources are urgently required as livestock feeds to reduce the stern food competition between man and livestock. Agricultural waste may be able to provide cost-effective sources of nutrients. Aim: The study determines the proximate properties of agricultural waste for their possible use as raw material for animal feed. Material and methods: Consequently, 10 samples of agricultural waste were collected from locations in Edo state where the plants are cultivated in commercial quantities. Proximate analysis was performed on the samples using standard protocols to evaluate their nutritive potentials for utilization as feedstuffs for livestock feeds. The proximate properties of the agricultural waste were compared with plantain flesh (PF Auchi and PF Benin). Results: Significant variations exist among the samples (p < 0.05) with respect to their fat, protein, nitrogen free extract (NFE) and dietary fiber content. The following samples had highest proximate values; corn cob (moisture content at 17.38%), PP Usen (ash content at 7.58%), PP Benin (fat content at 7.20%), CHI Usen (fiber content at 12.70%), PP Auchi (protein content at 19.83%) and PF Benin (Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) at 73.43%). Plantain peels had the closest proximate properties to plantain flesh. Conclusion: The results from the analysis show that the proximate properties of the wastes compare favorably with plantain flesh and will be suitable for livestock feeds production. The production of livestock feed from agricultural waste would also serve as an effective and attractive method to manage the waste.

Keywords: livestock, agricultural waste, nutrient, feeds.

Full text article

Generated from XML file


1. Ajila, C. M., Brar, S. K., Verma, M., Tyagi, R. D., Godbout, S., & Valéro, J. R. (2012). Bio-processing of agro-byproducts to animal feed. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 32(4), 382-400.
2. Agamuthu, P. (2016). Waste management & Research developments in the past 4 years under professor Agamuthu as editor-in-Chief. Waste Management & Research: The Journal for a Sustainable Circular Economy, 34(9), 816-817.
3. Elbeshbishy, E., & Okoye, F. (2019). Improper disposal of household hazardous waste: Landfill/Municipal wastewater treatment plant. Municipal Solid Waste Management.
4. Mansur, D., Tago, T., Masuda, T., & Abimanyu, H. (2014). Conversion of cacao pod husks by pyrolysis and catalytic reaction to produce useful chemicals. Biomass and Bioenergy, 66, 275-285.
5. Ojuri, O. O., & Ola, S. A. (2010). Estimation of contaminant transport parameters for a tropical sand in a sand tank model. International Journal of Environmental Science & Technology, 7(2), 385-394.
6. Ojuri O. O., Ola S. A., Fadugba O. G. And Uduebor M. A. (2014). Site Remediation In Nigeria: Proven And Innovative Technologies (Recovery Of Free Hydrocarbon From Soil/Groundwater)” GEOMATE 2014, The Fourth International Conference On Geotechnique, Construction Materials & Environment, 19-21 November 2014, 585 - 590 USQ, Springfield, Brisbane, Australia.
7. E. A. Iyayi. (n.d.). Wastes to wealth: Improvement of agro-industrial byproducts through fungal biotechnology. Animal, Agricultural and Food Processing Wastes - IX.
8. Miah, M., Tada, C., Yang, Y., & Sawayama, S. (2005). Aerobic thermophilic bacteria enhance biogas production. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 7(1), 48-54.
9. Araújo, A. S., & Monteiro, R. T. (2005). Plant bioassays to assess toxicity of textile sludge compost. Scientia Agricola, 62(3), 286-290.
10. Truong, L., Morash, D., Liu, Y., & King, A. (2019). Food waste in animal feed with a focus on use for broilers. International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture, 8(4), 417-429.
11. Association of official analytical chemists (AOAC). (2005). Van Nostrand's Encyclopedia of Chemistry.
12. Kilama, G., Lating, P. O., Byaruhanga, J., & Biira, S. (2019). Quantification and characterization of cocoa pod husks for electricity generation in Uganda. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 9(1).
13. Soares, T. F., & Oliveira, M. B. (2022). Cocoa by-products: Characterization of Bioactive compounds and beneficial health effects. Molecules, 27(5), 1625.
14. Adeyi, O. (2010). Proximate composition of some agricultural wastes in Nigeria and their potential use in activated carbon production. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 14(1).
15. Onuegbu, N.C., Nwuka, M.U., M, O., & Kabu, N.O. (2016). Nutritional properties of African pear seed and performance of defatted cake in poultry feed formulations. Journal of Animal Research and Nutrition, 01(02).
16. Veeresh, S. J., & Narayana, J. (2013). Sustainable utilization of agro-waste for high calorific energy briquettes. Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 35(14), 1375-1384.
17. Kamau, J. M., Mbui, D. N., Mwaniki, J. M., & Mwaura, F. B. (2020). Proximate analysis of fruits and vegetables wastes from Nairobi County, Kenya. Research Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 5(1), 9-15.
18. Maliki, M., Ifijen, I., & Omorogbe, S. (2020). Cocoa husks: A sustainable resource for alkali production. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 14(7), 2652-2658.
19. Arun, K. B., Persia, F., Aswathy, P. S., Chandran, J., Sajeev, M. S., Jayamurthy, P., & Nisha, P. (2015). Plantain peel - a potential source of antioxidant dietary fibre for developing functional cookies. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(10), 6355-6364.
20. Anuforo, P. C. (2017). Proximate analysis and determination of some selected vitamins and minerals contents of Terminalia Catappa endocarp flour. Journal of Nutritional Health & Food Science, 5(5), 1-4.
21. Drewnowski, A., & Almiron-Roig, E. (2009). Human perceptions and preferences for fat-rich foods. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 265-291.
22. Nettleton, J. A., Brouwer, I. A., Geleijnse, J. M., & Hornstra, G. (2017). Saturated fat consumption and risk of coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke: A science update. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 70(1), 26-33.
23. Rahman, R., Hafid, A. Rahadi, S., Aka, R., Anas, A.A. and Beana, S. (2015). The Nutrients
Potential of Agricultural Waste as Feed of Ruminants in Southeast Sulawesi. Conference: International Seminar Improving Tropical Animal Production for Food Security.
24. Yusuf, H. K., Garba, Y., & Adam, M. (2022). Proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids profile of selected crop residues across Savannah agro-ecological zones of Northern Nigeria. FUDMA Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Technology, 8(1), 212-222.
25. Jekayinfa S. and Omisakin, O. (2005). The Energy Potentials of some Agricultural Wastes as Local Fuel Materials in Nigeria. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal. Vol. VII. Manuscript EE 05 003.
26. Zaid, A.A., Owonire, L.M. and Sobaloju, S. (2016). Replacement value of maize with ripe and unripe plantain peels in the diet of juvenile catfish (Clarias Gariepinus Burchell, 1822). Journal of Agricultural Research and Development, 15(1), 24-35.


Muniratu Maliki (Primary Contact)
Esther Uwadia Ikhuoria
Patience Aluyor
Author Biography

Muniratu Maliki, Department of Industrial Chemistry Edo State University Uzairue (EDSU), Edo State



Maliki Muniratu has Ph.D Degree in Environmental and Analytical chemistry in 2017 from the University of Benin, Benin City. She is presently a Reader at Edo State University Uzairue, Edo State, Nigeria. Her research interest include: agricultural waste treatment and management, water analysis, biogas, green technology and the novel nano technology. Her researches includes the synthesis and characterization of Chlorinated rubber seed oil (fire retardants) alkydes and Characterization of avocado and Africa pear oil


  • Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

Skills and expertise

  • Environmental Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemical Analysis
  • Analytical Method Development
  • Bio-fertilizers
  • Anaerobic Digestion
  • Green Technology
  • Water Analysis
  • Renewable Energy
  • Water and Wastewater Treatment
  • Waste Utilisation
  • Extraction and chaterisation of oil from waste seeds
  • Nano technology


  • English

Contact information



Maliki, M., Ikhuoria, E. U. ., & Aluyor, P. (2023). Proximate analysis of selected agricultural waste for their nutritional potential. The North African Journal of Food and Nutrition Research, 7(15), 117–125.

Article Details

Received 2023-01-27
Accepted 2023-06-13
Published 2023-06-29

Funding data