This review focused on data on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus especially type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Africa, where the current number of diabetes individuals has reached 19 million. There appears to be heterogeneity in the data between countries with a trend towards the development of diabetes at an earlier age, high socio-economic impact but also limited financial resources given that the majority of African countries are developing countries with low to middle income. Africa is not spared the universal risk factors for T2DM, but the influence of the environment (urbanization), inadequate diets and sedentary lifestyle, often leading to overweight and obesity, remains a major concern. This is reflected in projections and estimates by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), which predicts a 143% increase in the number of people with diabetes in Africa by 2045. Other factors have a negative impact on diabetes management, such as difficult access to medication and lack of education programs. Overall and individual awareness raising in collaboration with health authorities, governments and the media remains the most appropriate. Pending the implementation of national programs for the prevention of diabetes and its complications, it is necessary to strengthen therapeutic education and improve the quality of primary care in order to fight the scourge of diabetes.
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